Osteoarthritis or deforming arthritis of the knee joint is a disease of the degenerative-dystrophic character in hyaline articular cartilage to generate cartilage of the knee, ice sheets Misaki of the Tibia and Femur.
Symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint develop in the course of the years, gradually, and the main Manifestation of the disease, the stiffness and pain. Arthrosis of other joints (phalanges, shoulder and elbow joint, hip joint) it was osteoarthritis of the knee is the most common disease.
Most of them are a prone to osteoarthritis of the knee category of the population is women, but also people older than 40 years. In some cases, osteoarthritis can develop in athletes (increased stress) and young people (against the background of the traumas).
Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee
Osteoarthritis of the knee joint does not develop from a single reason, in most cases, the development of the disease depends on the combination of several negative factors, compounded by the with age and can eventually lead to such a violation. Medicine distinguishes the following mechanisms of the formation of osteoarthritis:
The primary correction in the age of aging of the body tissues, but also on the background of some of the factors that provoke this disease (increased stress, heredity, obesity).
Secondary – 30% of all cases, the development of the osteoarthritis of the knee, occurs mainly after lesions of the meniscus, a torn ligament, fracture of the Tibia and other injuries. In most cases, the symptoms of osteoarthritis in the knee joint manifest themselves in 3-4 years. But if the injury is serious enough, the occurrence of the symptoms, it may in 2-3 months.
About 7-8% of the cases, the development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is carried out when after forty years the person begins to engage in active sports, namely, knee bends and Jogging. But because of their age, sagging tissues of the knee joint and the characteristic age-related changes in heavy loads, the occurrence of rapid degenerative and dystrophic changes in the joints can trigger.
Another reason for the development of osteoarthritis of the knee in humans, concomitant diseases – varicose veins, obesity, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, Psoriasis, rheumatoid or reactive Arthritis can.
Constant critical strain on the king's meadow, regular, longer climbs the stairs in the old-age or weight lifting, but also professional sports can joint to osteoarthritis of the knee. Significantly increased risk for osteoarthritis of the knee in genetically caused by the weakness of the ligamentous apparatus, Diabetes, and other metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, injuries of the spine.
Spasm of the muscles of the front of the thigh is the reason for 50-60% of cases, the development of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Such muscle cramps until the pain in the king's meadow may not show for a long time, a Person can feel, the heaviness in the legs, fatigue, pain in the lower back. In the case, when in a state of constant spazmirovannah the iliopsoas and Rectus muscles of the thigh are, this results with increasing age for the "contraction" of the king's meadow, which assobagno movement.
The degree of osteoarthritis of the knee
In most cases the development of osteoarthritis of the knee is found in one of the tribes. Medicine distinguishes 3 degrees of osteoarthritis of the knee, depending on the intensity of the pathological processes:
First Deformation of the bone, use of the joint is missing, the recurring dull pain in the king's meadow after physical stress on the joint. Develop a slight swelling of the joint, which disappears itself after some time.
The second stage – typical increase in the symptoms of osteoarthritis. The pain has a long and intense character, this painting is created in mini-loads (lifting of heavy objects, go), can appear to be crunching in the joint. The second degree of gonarthrosis in the knee joint, a deformation and a moderate restriction of freedom of movement can develop.
The third stage has distinct symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Significant deformation of the joint and constant pain may lead to a disturbance of the gait of the patient, there is a restriction of the mobility of the joint is displayed. The third degree of osteoarthritis of the knee the pain can be amplified, depending on the weather and achieve so strong that the Patient's sleep disturbances, restricted mobility cannot be reduced to a Minimum, which allows a comfortable Position for the legs.
Diseases and pathologies to be confused with those of osteoarthritis of the knee
The Blockade of the knee joint is damaged meniscus.
The disease develops after an unfortunate movement, followed by a crunch in the king's meadow, there is severe pain, which subsides after 15 minutes, the next day, the swelling of the knee occurs.
Ankylosing spondylitis, gout, joint rheumatism, Arthritis – psoriatic, reactive, rheumatoid.
To distinguish between Arthritis, and osteoarthritis of the knee, the General analysis of blood. In the case of Arthritis, the results of the analysis on the presence of inflammatory process in the body, while in the case of osteoarthritis changes in the blood analyze is not present.
Inflammation of the king's meadow tendons.
One of the cases in women over the age of 40, when carrying loads or the descent on the staircase designed in the most. Pain localized on the inner surface, wherein the limiting of the movement of the king's meadow is not happening.
Vascular pain in the knees.
Pain characterized by symmetry and occur in both knees. Characteristic for young people in the period of accelerated bone growth can occur on exertion, cold, change of weather. For the description of the own condition of the patients use the term – "king's meadow twisted".
The stage of osteoarthritis of the knee
The disease insidiously the its gradual development. Initially, the Patient feels only minor discomfort, pain when moving, lifting or lowering the stairs. In some cases, the sensations of the patient can be to a small stiffness of the joint and contraction in the area of the Vena poplitea. A characteristic feature of osteoarthritis of the knee joint is regarded as a Symptom of Bi pain, the is from a that after a sharp transition from a sitting Position in the movement of the Person begins to feel pain with the first steps, which gradually disappear, to recur after heavy load.
The appearance of the knee joint during the first stage of osteoarthritis is not different from a healthy king meadow, in some cases, patients will notice a small swelling. Also, in some cases, in the knee joint fluid begins, it swells and spherical, Synovitis begins to develop, which leads to a feeling of heaviness and limitation of motion of the joint.
Such changes in the joint during the first stage of the arthritis are vessels due to disorders of blood circulation in small intraosseous, nourish the cartilage, hyaline. This leads to a change in the surface of the cartilage, dryness, loss of smoothness, to the formation of cracks. For this reason, a smooth and gentle movement between the cartilages difficult, and accompanied by constant application of micro-traumas in the use of cartilage is located adjacent to each other. Cartilage, the trauma in a constant state of micro, loses its damping properties, and thin.
The development of pathological processes leads to a change in the bony structures. Articular surface Playground flattened, and the edges of Katie appear to be growths in the Form of spikes (osteophytes). The shrinking of the capsule of the joint is moved, the synovial fluid is thickened, the synovial fluid. This leads to a significant deterioration of the process of supply to the cartilage and accelerating the Degeneration.
At the transition of the disease in the second stage, symptoms begin to improve, pain arising already in the case of weak loads, localized, and on the inner side of the front side of the joint. Holiday brings relief, but the resumption of movement leads to severe pain.
The significantly reduced mobility of the joint, and try to bend the leg causing severe pain, and to hear the movement of a rough grinding is. More frequent Synovitis, the joint is expanded and changes its configuration due to the large accumulation of fluid.
The third degree of osteoarthritis of the knee by a considerable deformation of the bone, where you pressed, as it were, into each other. Almost no cartilage, but a limitation of the mobility of the joints increases. You smooth out the joints is quite problematic, and the pain begin to interfere with the patient around the clock, and when walking and at rest. Due to the strong deformation of the joints of the feet O - or X to get in-shape, the gait is unstable, perevalivaetsya, often the Patient is not without sticks or crutches.
Diagnosis and therapy of the osteoarthritis of the knee
In the case of the normal investigation, the presence of the patient in the first degree of osteoarthritis of the knee joint can not be set. If there are 2 or 3 degrees, at the time of investigation, observed swelling, edema (with Synovitis), Knirsch, observed the bias of the movements, the change in the axis of the limbs, a striking deformity of the joints.
Today for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis, apart from the x-ray diagnostics, are widely used methods CT and MRI, through which you can test to examine in more detail from injuries to the bony structures and pathological changes of the soft parts.
The treatment of the disease, a series of orthopedic treatments and drug therapy. Orthopedist waste mud packs, healing gymnastics, Massage, physiotherapy rubs.
The drug treatment consists in the application of chondro protection, these drugs, the synovial fluid is replaced. In some cases, an intra-articular injection of steroid hormones takes place. Also patients recommended Spa treatment.
If the treatment of young patients with marked limitation of motion and pain syndrome is ineffective, can be applied to the method, arthroplasty, joint replacement, for the 3-6-month period of Rehabilitation.
What happens to the joint in osteoarthritis of the knee?
Hinged cartilage plays an important role in the process of the movement of the people and is a smooth, supple, and fixed installations, thanks to the joint bone is free to exploit themselves move relative to each other, and also the depreciation and the load distribution when walking.
But in the case of regular excessive stress, genetic predisposition, metabolic disorders in the body, long muscle cramps, and injury to the cartilage loses its smoothness and starts to thin. Soft slide bone use articulated strong friction is replaced, the first degree of osteoarthritis of the knee, where the cartilage its cushioning loses the properties.
The process of removal is progressing, and a decrease in depreciation leads to a sprite on the bone surfaces with the formation of osteophytes in the Form of bony growths. In this disease the second stage and re-birth has already synovial membrane and joint capsule accompanied. The disadvantage of the leveling and movement atrophy of the structure of the knee joint, the consistency of the liquid is tenacious, breaks down the process of nutrition of the cartilage, which leads to a further deterioration in the condition of the patient.
Thinning of the cartilage leads to a reduction of the distance of the pivot bearings between the two bone use up to 80%. While walking due to the abnormal friction and a lack of design, destructive processes in the joint grow fast, it quickly leads to the development of osteoarthritis in the third degree with pronounced symptoms:
Pain with motion, especially when lifting or lower the staircase.
Pain at stress and at rest, morning stiffness.
The Patient begins to limp, trying to protect the diseased joint.
Severe cases of the disease, forcing the use of crutches or a cane.
The third degree of osteoarthritis of the knee characterized by the almost complete absence of cartilage, resulting in decreased mobility of the joints to a Minimum. So no arcane methods, Super drugs and ointments not recover worn-out cartilage, and in view of the degree of deformation of the bone is not in use, the normal operation of the joint is possible. In this case, only surgical intervention can help.
Gymnastics for osteoarthritis of the knee joint
Each variant of the treatment, the art rose of a knee joint may only be prescribed by a doctor. Physiotherapy involves a slow, quiet version of the exercises, with no knees to bend, twisting of the wrist, jump. The best gymnastics in the morning, sitting or lying down, for 20 minutes, repeat each exercise 10 times.
The main tasks of the physical therapy are spasms, the relaxation of the muscle, causing pain, improving blood circulation to the joint, slowing the progression of the disease, the prevention of the further destruction of the cartilage. During the acute illness prohibited the implementation of the exercise.
Lying on your back, you can an exercise bike, but the feet must be parallel to the ground to stretch, exercise of the feet in circular motions, and, apart dissipate legs, alternately slipped on the floor, straining of the foot to the account up to 10.
Sitting on a chair, with his feet dangling legs stretch, bend at the same time of the foot, and hold this Position for a count of 10, alternately, to the belly of each king to pull back with the hands of a meadow and slowly to the original.
With a focus on the wall, standing on the floor, lead the first turns with the foot-and-forth.
By running a straightened leg on the chair, oblique movement of the spring character, his hands supported on the hips, as if trying to stretch the leg more.
The prone position, and alternately a bent raise one leg and hold it up to 3 accounts.
Sitting on the floor, lift the legs to the sides, by inhalation drag on the ground, the king's meadow to the abdomen and back to the starting position, exhale.